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Things to know about lenses for machine vision

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lenses for machine vision

you have already decided on the parameters of an industrial camera, which is suitable for solving your problem. Now is the time to choose a lens for her. They differ not only in type, resolution, angle of view and size, but also in design. In addition, you should pay attention to the optical resolution and spectral bandwidth of the lens.

What types of lenses are there?

The lens can be conventional, with different focal lengths: wide-angle, macro lens, with variable or fixed focal length, telecentric, special for “peeking” into the tube (endoscopic) or for 360 ° coverage. In addition, there are special lenses for shooting in the near infrared range – the spectral bandwidth of the lens.

In classical photography, lenses with variable focal lengths (varifocal or zoom lenses) are often used, with which you can zoom in and out of the “picture”. In most cases, lenses with a fixed focal length are used in machine vision systems, because they provide less optical distortion and have better spatial resolution, which allows measurements of parameters with higher accuracy. In addition, during development, the system is configured for a specific process and most often there is no need to change the focal length. The varifocal lens can be useful when developing a high-quality video surveillance system based on machine vision, when a conventional IP camera cannot provide the required image quality.

This article will focus on conventional lenses, since they are the ones most often used in machine vision systems.

Fixed focal length lenses:

  • Regular:
    ○ Wide-angle – up to 8 mm;
    ○ Normal – from 8 to 100 mm;
    ○ Telephoto lenses – over 100mm.

Such lenses are similar to the pupil of the human eye: distant objects appear smaller in size, while closer ones appear larger.

  • Special:
    ○ Macro lenses – for capturing images at close range. The gain of this lens is greater than 1;
    ○ Endoscopic – a lens with a short focal length (from 3 to 20 mm) and an angle of view from 50 to 135 °, and sometimes even more;
    ○ 360 ° optics – allows you to carry out a complete scan of the object using as few cameras as possible. For example, with a 360 ° lens, a single image is sufficient to view the top and side of an object or the interior of a cavity;
    Telecentric lens – lens with no perspective distortion and diffraction. This allows you to measure the geometry of objects with high accuracy.

Sensor size

There is the term “lens imaging field” which refers to the area that light is incident on when passing through the lens. An informative parameter of the “lens image field” is its diameter, which, like the camera sensor format ( d ), is indicated in inches.

If the optics are incorrectly selected, the image “vignetting” is possible – the phenomenon of partial darkening of the corners of the image. This effect can occur if the diagonal of the camera sensor is larger than the diameter of the lens image field.

Ideally, a 1/3 “C-Mount lens should be mounted on a camera with a 1/3” sensor. In this case, optimal use of the image field is achieved. If the same lens is attached to a camera with a 1/2 “sensor diameter, vignetting will occur.

How are mounts different?

The connection between the camera body and lens is called a mount. The mounts comply with a specific standard and are marked by the type of screw connection on the side of the camera.

Lens mountS-MountCS-MountC-Mount F-Mount
Camera sensor size1/6 “to 1 / 2.5”1/2 “, 1/3” and less1/2 “, 2/3” and 1 “13/8 “and less
Camera typeMatrixMatrixMatrix, linearLinear
Camera mountable with CS-Mount threadAdapter ring requiredYesAdapter ring requiredNo

What does lens resolution mean?

Lens selection VS Technology

The lens must have sufficient resolution corresponding to the matrix pixel size. The resolution of a lens is specified in pairs of lines per millimeter and determines how many lines can be clearly distinguished in one millimeter. The more pairs of lines are distinguishable, the higher the resolution of the lens.

Knowing the number of line pairs per millimeter N at the lens (specified in the technical documentation), it is possible to determine the lens pixel size X × X [µm × µm].

Lens with which focal length to choose?

The focal length is the distance between the optical center of the lens and the sensor. All transmitted light rays parallel to the optical axis intersect at the focal point. Thus, the focal length f of the lens depends on the refractive power of the lenses installed in it and is expressed in millimeters.

It is worth noting that the shorter the focal length, the wider the angle of view, the greater the optical distortion, and the shorter the working distance.

The focal length is determined by the width of the sensor, the parameters of the object, and the working distance. Each lens has a minimum working distance (specified in the specifications) that must be considered when designing a system. 

What is aperture and what does it affect?

Choosing a lens aperture value directly affects image quality and brightness. The F- number (or aperture division) is the ratio of the focal length to the diameter of the lens opening and determines how wide the aperture is.

A high F- number means that the aperture is not open, which means that little light is entering the sensor. If the aperture is wide open, then more light enters the sensor, which means that less additional light sources are required to obtain a high-quality image.

Therefore, in low light conditions, you should shoot with a wide aperture. However, narrowing the aperture will reduce unwanted effects such as vignetting and other aberrations, and increase the depth of field.

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Link Building to Promote Primary Keywords

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Though it may seem an irony to claim to promote Keywords through Link Building, while Keywords are predominantly used to promote links and web pages, it is essential for businesses to promote their Primary Keywords in order to get customers to come to their brand content and web pages. Primary Keywords are the most prominent keywords that represent and refer to the business or brand. The promotion of the Primary Keywords of the brand helps it to get more business conversions by getting numerous visitors to its blog and web pages. Get the best seo link building services canada here.

This article looks into various ideas and possibilities as to how your Primary Keywords can be promoted and improve your results and performance.

Identify the Factors that Influence Your Business

There are many factors that affect a business which include external and internal factors. External Factors are those factors such as government legislations, current technology, news and events, competition, prevailing geo-political situations, economical and environmental conditions, etc. These External Factors act as strong undercurrents that drive the market forces and also play contributory or inhibiting roles  in your business. These factors need to be keenly watched as they unfold and implemented in your overall and content strategy so that you can use them for your business advantage instead of getting caught off guard. Internal Factors are those factors that influence your business from inside your organization such as resource team, technical caliber of your staff members, strategic decision making, marketing budget allocation, swift planning, brainstorming and ideation, etc., which make or break your business accordingly as how they are handled and managed.

Classify the Keywords

The classification of keywords are crucial to the promotion of your Primary Keywords through the Link Building process. This is necessitated by the fact that a successful campaign depends on how and where a specific set of keywords are used. Keywords have to be used and applied relevantly and wisely so that they play the defined roles that they are used for. Irrelevant use of keywords are a misfit in the whole scheme of Content Marketing and in the end, the process becomes counterproductive.

Industry Keywords

The Industry Keywords represent your industry that you are operating and will connect to your generic industry audience.

Product Keywords

Better use of Product Keywords will gain the attention of search bots in search engines and internal search algorithms of various platforms and play a significant role in your Search Marketing endeavor. 

Brand Keywords

These are Keywords and Phrases that represent all your Brands and Brand Identities. These help with brand reinforcement and recollection, and more, will improve your SEO results.

Product Use Keywords

People use Product Use Keywords as search phrases to find answers and solutions for their pain points, problems and specific needs. Use of these keywords help retrieve your content in search results and solve people’s problems. 

Trending Keywords

A key strategic move, the use of these Trending Keywords attract people’s attention as they want to seek information or enhance their understanding on current trending products, topics and situations.

Define the Goals

Your Link Building goals with regard to the promotion of your Primary Keywords can be defined and refined as Top Search Engine Results, Number of Web Page Visits and Number of URL Link Clicks. But , before that you have to select and list the keywords that you want to monitor the performance for. You can use Google Keyword Planner, Moz Keyword Planner and Ahref Keyword Tool to research and find the popular keyword phrases. Once you have identified the top and primary keywords, you can start analyzing and measuring the performance of these keywords for certain parameters and criteria.

Top Search Engine Results

Talking of keywords promotion, the first thing that hits the mind is their Ranking Positions in Search Engines. You can use SEO tools such as Keywords Ranking Position Tracker available in the website www.smallseotools.com and similar such web tools sites for live-tracking the keywords ranking in Google and leading search engines along with other insightful metrics. This lets you improve the positions of your keywords with effective SEO and Link Building activities. The backlink strength of your webpages and effective distribution of your content across a variety of platforms and topics help push your keywords on top of the SERP results. 

Number of Web Page Visits

Another very important Key Performance Indicator (KPI) is the Number of Web Page visits that you receive for the keywords that you monitor and measure. It is highlyu necessary that your web site or web pages should receive a tremendous amount of relevant and quality traffic in order to achieve your strategic goals and business results. 

Number of URL Link Clicks

Using URL Links you can achieve your Keyword goals in two ways. One, you can use your Primary Keywords as Anchor Texts for your backlinks to get quality customers to your website and get conversions there. Two, you can get relevant backlinks through the promotion of your Primary Keywords through search engines, blogs and articles, and make them visit your website.

Design the Marketing Funnel

You have to ensure that the Marketing Funnel that you create features all the types of Keywords that you want to promote and that too in the appropriate stages of the Funnel. Keeping in mind the the three stages of Digital Marketing viz Awareness, Consideration and Conversion, use those keywords that fit these three stages in the various content forms and formats that you use for your promotion. As regards the types of keywords, you have tactically use industry keywords, information keywords, brand keywords, conversion keywords, generic keywords, specific keywords, etc., across the Funnel from top to bottom so that all your Primary Keywords get promoted in the natural way. Check Perfectlinkbuilding Canada for more details.

Decide the Content Requirements

Decide and finalize what types of content that you are going with for the promotion of your Primary Keywords in the upcoming campaign so that you can plan how to use these Primary Keywords and their related search phrases in the various content and ads. 

Decide the Usage of Keywords

The usage of Keywords have to be decided in advance so that effective Content Strategy can be devised such as creation of Article, Blog and Video Titles, Profile and Product Descriptions, Hashtags, Tags, Categories, Anchor Texts, etc., and used in your Link Building process.

Paid & Non-paid Methods

Instead of leaning on one particular method like Paid or Non-paid Method, you can eloquently use both the methods and get the desired results.

Conclusion

With the best of Content Strategy and effective Link Building, you can promote all your Primary Keywords and increase visibility of your Brand Content and Website.

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Link Building to Fulfill a Single Objective

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Link Building

Every business is created and run for a purpose. All the activities and actions performed and done in the name and aegis of the business are set to fulfil the end-goals of the business. The end-goals of a business are achieved through multiple Objectives. Each of these Objectives aimed and directed towards fulfilling the end-goals of the business determine the success and completion of the end-goals of the business. So, each Objective has to be carefully picked, understood and pursued in order that it is achieved in the best interests of the overall business development. It requires a great deal of skill and attention to define each Objective, promote it effectively and implement steps to achieve the results. 

In this article, we are looking at multiple ways and steps to fulfil an Objective effectively through Link Building. 

Make a Clear Statement of the Objective

An Objective has to be clearly explained and expressed in terms of its end-result so that steps can be effectively implemented and actions taken to accomplish it. So, the first step to be taken in the fulfilment of an Objective is to make a Clear Statement of the Objective.

Identify all Contributing Factors that Fulfil the Objective

This stage is very crucial as this is the prospecting stage of the process. Like in sales, who you are going to contact and persuade to buy is important, the list of the contributing factors are important for fulfilling your Objective. You have to identify the factors that are highly potential, influential and probable to produce the results. Any mess ups, misgivings and gaps in this stage will scuttle and jeopardize the whole process. You cannot start wrong for the right destination.

List all Funnel Activities Leading to the Objective

This stage is all about planning the interfaces and interactions with the Target Audience (TG) through various activities and actions. This requires a deep understanding of the audience behaviour and sound knowledge of the tools and techniques that you employ for your Link Building efforts. The best procedures will bring progress for your process and make it worthwhile. Having said this, it is imperative to list all the activities of the Funnel Marketing to regulate the flow of web links and traffic so that potential customers will perfectly reach the bottom of the Funnel where conversions happen. To this effect, you have to craft and monitor the Funnel activities at each stage of your Link Building and Digital Marketing so that quality leads can be generated and as a result of that, you will be able to fulfil your Link Building objective. For Best Link Building Services Canada, check with us.

Create the Strategy & Action Plan

Create your overall Link Building Strategy incorporating the best of ideas and concepts with a remarkable Action Plan that defines all the digital activities such as creation of right keywords, selection of tone and theme, timing of campaigns, roll out of ads and content, etc. Ensure that your Strategy involves both Macro Strategy and Micro Strategy so that you can have the best of bird’s view and lens view, and effectively approach your plan.

Create the Appropriate User Profiles

 

Creating the appropriate and accurate Buyer Persona or User Profile is half the battle won. You know who your Target Audience (TG) is and what remains is ways and means of reaching out to them effectively and efficiently. Creating the right User Profile is instrumental to the success of your overall campaign and strategically a key step in your Link Building process in the run up to fulfill your objective.

Select the Suitable Platforms & Tools

Selection of the suitable Platforms & Tools determines whether or not you will reach your Target Audience in the efficient manner, and you achieve your volumes. Every single objective is different and fulfilling each type of objective requires the selection of appropriate Platforms & Tools that closely match its strategic requirements and profile settings. While a Long-Term Objective might require Content Marketing Platforms like Blogs and Article sites apart from Directories and Case Studies, a Short-Term Objective might require Paid Ads or Sponsored Posts to achieve quick time results and website traffic.

Put the Correct Content Plan in place

A great Content Plan is creating a Seamless Content Calendar, Flawless Content Posts, Intriguing Graphics, Imposing Titles & Topics, Searchable Keywords, Engaging Hashtags, Clickable Backlink Anchor Texts, Impressive Landing Web Pages, Intoxicating Stories & Narrations, Tell-tale Taglines & Slogans, Superlative Social Media Posts, Exciting Contests and Events, Well-defined Videos & Infographics, Profound Profile & Product Descriptions, et al. Know more about ourLinkBuilding services & packages at https://perfectlinkbuilding.com/ca/

Kickstart your Campaign

Now, it is all set to kickstart your campaign. Do it in style so that it creates the right reach and impression without compromising your Brand Reputation and Identity. Brand Reputation Management and Quality Lead Generation are hand in glove with each other, and cannot be achieved independent of each other. A prospect or potential customer should value your brand first before he gets converted into a lead. And, the lead or even a converted customer should continue to value your brand to go ahead or continue to buy from you. So, have an eye on your campaign as to how best your brand is presented, and ensure your brand is always best communicated and showcased not only at the beginning of your campaign but throughout the running and aftermath of your campaign.

Measure Performance On The Go & Incorporate Improvements

Measuring the performance of your campaign and making the right corrections and necessary improvements are vital to ensure that your campaign is performing best and continue that way.

Conclusion

Following the steps herein is one thing and paying attention to practical and finer points of implementation is another. By tactically tiptoeing and tight roping your campaign, you can achieve your objective more meaningfully and on high notes as Link Building is more about promotion of quality links and better content than about mere numbers.

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Copyright information in video streams is most commonly protected using a two-step watermarking process, which is preferred by the OTT industry.

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As a result, the first step’s computational burden is reduced, and the second step’s simplicity and scalability are both improved as a result.

In the first step, the video asset is preprocessed, which is the process of creating different versions of it. Before watermarking can be applied, video segments are pre-watermarked so that they can be used interchangeably without altering the viewing experience. Multi-DRM applications in DRM protected content work hand in hand with these encoded video data variants, which are generated either in the baseband domain (pre-encoding) or encoded domain (post-encoding).

Create a serialised video bitstream with the recipient’s information in it. To assemble the video, the serialisation engine utilises the embedded payload to select a unique sequence of variants. In this case, the watermark identifier can be encoded using the sequence of variants to provide forensic evidence. A/B watermarking is a common example of two-step video watermarking used on OTT platforms.

Integration of variant generation with the head end is possible. Overhead is directly proportional to granularity of variant metadata, which is sent along with the video. There is no additional burden on CDN egress, which is exactly the same as the non-watermarked version. If the use case requires it, the level of integration between the head end and encoding process can be determined. A/B watermarking, for example, can result in delays that are inconvenient for live streaming because of the generation of variants. Thus, a closer integration of the variant generation and encoding processes may be required. Embedding a watermark is the next step. The watermark identifier is encoded in a unique sequence of variants generated by the serialisation agent. If an identifier is available, it can be implemented anywhere in the delivery network, including in transit (such as at a network edge) or on the client device (for example, during playback or PVR recording).

Because of this, the VOD server or CDN edge can be required to create requirements for two-step embedding, which is transparent to the client side. A client-side method of embedding before decoding is also possible. In this way, DRM-protected content can be kept safe from unauthorised use.

The scene is represented just by its 2D projection, which are photos acquired by cameras. It is possible to watermark image sequences that record a 3D scene and extract the watermark from any rendered image generated for any arbitrary view angle, as opposed to the first two methods, which only  protect the watermark information for the two key components of 3D scene representation (geometry and texture). If you’re using dynamic watermarking, you may embed information on the video asset while it’s being played back at the user’s end, such as the user’s email, date  and time of watching, their IP address, or even their business logo. Because of their dynamic nature, they provide additional protection for confidential content that  is not intended to be shared or altered. DAI (dynamic ad insertion) is also activated via dynamic watermarkin in order to optimise addressable ad income.

DRM  video protection techniques such as watermarks are not sufficient on their own, but when used in conjunction with other measures, they can help to safeguard the  intellectual property of the content owner and aid to trace the source of any alleged infringement. They also serve as a helpful reminder to users about their own  and others’ rights to the content they’re using.

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